This article entitle **Python Number** is a continuation of the previous article entitled Python Loops.

**Python Numbers** are data types that store numeric values and these are immutable data types which means that there will be no changes in the number results in the newly allocated object.

## What is a Python number?

In Python, a **number** refers to a numeric data type and has three in-built numeric data types listed below.

- Integers
- Floating point numbers
- Complex numbers

## Python Integer

An **integer** is a whole number without any decimal places, it’s a positive and a negative number and has unlimited length.

Example

num1 = 1 num2 = 9732827472724242 num3 = -77382232 print(type(num1)) print(type(num2)) print(type(num2))

Output

<class 'int'> <class 'int'> <class 'int'>

## Python Floating Point Number

A **floating point number** or a float in short is a number that contains single or multiple decimal places.

Example

num1 = 1.20 num2 = 2.0 num3 = -45.65 print(type(num1)) print(type(num2)) print(type(num3))

Output

<class 'float'> <class 'float'> <class 'float'>

## Python Complex Numbers

**Complex numbers** in Python are written with a (j) as an imaginary part of a number.

Example

num1 = 4+6j num2 = 6j num3 = -7j print(type(num1)) print(type(num2)) print(type(num3))

Output

<class 'complex'> <class 'complex'> <class 'complex'>

## Number Type Conversion in Python

Python can also convert a number internally into an expression that contains a mixed type to a common type for evaluation. In some instances, you should need to coerce a number explicitly from a single type to another just to satisfy all the requirements of the operator or a parameter function.

- A type int(x) is used to convert an x to a plain integer.
- A type long(x) is used to convert an x to a long integer.
- A type float(x) is used to convert an x to a floating-point number.
- A type complex(x) is used to convert an x to a complex number with a real part x and a number imaginary part to zero.
- A type complex(x, y) is used to convert an x to a complex number with a real part x and an imaginary part y. And the x and y is a numeric expression.

## Python Mathematical Functions

Python also includes the following functions which can perform mathematical calculations.

Function & Returns | Description |
---|---|

abs(x) | The absolute value of x: the (positive) distance between x and zero. |

ceil(x) | The ceiling of x: the smallest integer not less than x |

cmp(x,y) | -1 if x < y, 0 if x == y, or 1 if x > y |

exp(x) | The exponential of x: e^{x} |

fabs(x) | The absolute value of x. |

floor(x) | The floor of x: the largest integer not greater than x |

log(x) | The natural logarithm of x, for x> 0 |

log10(x) | The base-10 logarithm of x for x> 0. |

max(x1, x2,…) | The largest of its arguments: the value closest to positive infinity |

min(x1, x2,…) | The smallest of its arguments: the value closest to negative infinity |

modf(x) | The fractional and integer parts of x in a two-item tuple. Both parts have the same sign as x. The integer part is returned as a float. |

pow(x, y) | The value of x**y. |

round(x [,n]) | x rounded to n digits from the decimal point. Python rounds away from zero as a tie-breaker: round(0.5) is 1.0 and round(-0.5) is -1.0. |

sqrt(x) | The square root of x for x > 0 |

## Python Random Numbers Functions

Random numbers are mostly used for games, testing, security, testing, and privacy applications.

The following table below shows functions that are commonly used in development.

Function | Description |
---|---|

choice(seq) | A random item from a list, tuple, or string. |

randrange ([start,] stop [,step]) | A randomly selected element from range(start, stop, step) |

random() | A random float r, such that 0 is less than or equal to r and r is less than 1 |

seed([x]) | Sets the integer starting value used in generating random numbers. Call this function before calling any other random module function. Returns None. |

shuffle(lst) | Randomizes the items of a list in place. Returns None. |

uniform(x, y) | A random float r, such that x is less than or equal to r and r is less than y |

## Python Trigonometric Functions

The following table below are functions that commonly use for trigonometric calculations.

Function | Description |
---|---|

acos(x) | Return the arc cosine of x, in radians. |

asin(x) | Return the arc sine of x, in radians. |

atan(x) | Return the arc tangent of x, in radians. |

atan2(y, x) | Return atan(y / x), in radians. |

cos(x) | Return the cosine of x radians. |

hypot(x, y) | Return the Euclidean norm, sqrt(x*x + y*y). |

sin(x) | Return the sine of x radians. |

tan(x) | Return the tangent of x radians. |

degrees(x) | Converts angle x from radians to degrees. |

radians(x) | Converts angle x from degrees to radians. |

## Python Mathematical Constants

The following modules can also define the two mathematical constants

Constants | Description |
---|---|

pi | The mathematical constant pi. |

e | The mathematical constant e. |

## Summary

In summary, you have read about **Python Number**. We also discussed in this article what is a Python number, integer, floating point, complex numbers, number type conversion, mathematical functions, random numbers functions, trigonometric functions, and mathematical constants.

I hope this article about **Numbers in Python** programming language could help you a lot to continue pursuing learning this powerful programming language.

If you want to learn more check out my previous and latest articles for more career-changing articles.